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 By Robert E. Kells, Jr.
     In 1994, TRADOC continued to respond to the pressures on the military structure resulting from defense budget reductions and the changed strategic environment of the post-Cold War world. In 1993, TRADOC commander General Frederick M. Franks, Jr., had launched a "reengineering" initiative intended to meet these challenges. As a result, significant reorganizations of two major subordinate commands, the Combined Arms Command (CAC) and the Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM), were conducted in 1993 and 1994. In addition, TRADOC continued actions to comply with Base Realignment and Closure Commission directives from 1988, 1991 and 1993 (BRACs 88, 91 and 93, respectively).

     TRADOC functioned as a major command of the United States Army, dedicated to preparing the Army for war and serving as the architect for the Army's future. The Combined Arms Command (CAC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and the Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) at Fort Lee, Virginia, continued as major subordinate commands. Both commanders wore "dual hats" as deputy commanding generals. CAC underwent a reorganization during 1994, which is discussed below. Also dual hatted was the Deputy Commanding General/Chief of Staff TRADOC. Two other deputy commanding generals, one for the U. S. Army Reserve and one for the Army National Guard, continued to serve in their respective capacities. The ROTC Cadet Command, headquartered at Fort Monroe, and the TRADOC Analysis Center (TRAC), located at Fort Leavenworth with elements at Forts Monroe, Lee, Benjamin Harrison, and White Sands Missile Range, functioned as major subordinate elements. The Cadet Command assumed a new official title designation when, on 5 January 1994, approval was received for redesignation from U. S. Army ROTC Cadet Command to U. S. Army Cadet Command.1

     Within the headquarters (Appendix A) the TRADOC Chief of Staff was assisted by seven General Staff deputies. As manned during 1994 (Appendix B), those positions included the Deputy Chief of Staff for Base Operations Support (DCSBOS), Training (DCST), Doctrine (DCSDOC), Combat Developments (DCSCD), Resource Management (DCSRM), Information Management (DCSIM), and Analysis (DCSA). The commander of the TRADOC Analysis Center was dual hatted as DCSA. The DCSA was redesignated Deputy Chief of Staff for Simulations and Analysis (DCSSA) on 27 October 1994.2 The TRADOC Commander's special staff was composed of the Chief of Public Affairs, the Staff Judge Advocate, the Inspector General, the Office of Internal Review and Audit, the Command Historian, and the Command Safety Office. Also designated as special staff were the foreign army liaison officers to TRADOC.

     In addition to functions at the headquarters, TRADOC operated several field operating agencies — organizations with special missions that reported directly to the headquarters from a variety of locations. The Army Training Support Center (ATSC) at Fort Eustis and the Security Assistance Training Field Activity (SATFA) in Hampton, Virginia, reported to the command through the Deputy Chief of Staff for Training. Other field operating agencies included the TRADOC Management Engineering Activity (TRAMEA), centered at Fort Monroe with satellite offices around the command; the TRADOC Library and Information Network (TRALINET), also at Fort Monroe; the Peninsula Civilian Personnel Support Activity, which served Forts Monroe, Eustis and Story from a location in Newport News, Virginia; the TRADOC Contracting Activity at Fort Eustis; and, the TRADOC Field Element, which coordinated the network of TRADOC liaison officers to sister services and foreign armies from its site at Fort Monroe. The U. S. Disciplinary Barracks (USDB) at Fort Leavenworth continued to perform its special function as the Army's preeminent correctional facility. The Joint Readiness Training Center—formerly a TRADOC asset—had relocated to Fort Polk, Louisiana, from Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, in 1993. The JRTC fell under Forces Command (FORSCOM), but its Operations Group continued to report to TRADOC.3 TRADOC headquarters provided direction for 20 major organizations on 17 TRADOC installations and nine organizations on installations operated by other major commands at the close of the year. The map below shows the location of TRADOC installations in the United States at the close of 1994. A list of subordinate commands and principal commanders as of 20 December 1994 appears at Appendix C. TRADOC supported several interservice agencies as previously noted. The Louisiana Maneuvers Task Force , a Department of the Army agency, resided as a Ft. Monroe tenant activity.

DCST Transfer of the
Training Information Management Function

     As part of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Training (ODCST) reorganization, the training information management functions were consolidated at the United States Army Training Support Center. Beginning on 3 October 1994, ATSC formed the Army Training Information Systems Directorate (ATISD). This directorate was formed by the assumption of the Army Training Information Management Program and the Standard Army Training System program from the Training Development and Analysis Directorate of ODCST and the transfer of the Automated Instructional Management System and the Automated Instructional Management System-Redesign function with three personnel and associated dollars from the Training Operations Management Activity, ODCST. Within ATSC, the

TRADOC Activities on non-TRADOC Installations

TRADOC installations, 1994TRADOC installations, 1994
TRADOC Management Office and the Training Support Management Division of the Operations, Plans, and Integration Directorate, and all of the Information Management Directorate, were consolidated into ATISD.4

Reengineering TRADOC

     In 1993, TRADOC commander General Frederick M. Franks, Jr., announced his intention to "reengineer" TRADOC, making it a "lean, agile, flatter, more competitive, information-age organization." 1994 witnessed major strides in this ongoing effort. The impetus for the re-engineering effort came from the still changing and uncertain strategic environment, changes in the Army, the challenge of information age warfare and reductions in resources due to budgetary and personnel cutbacks. General Franks' intent was to sustain the core missions of TRADOC,5 but to adapt the organization's processes and to restructure its various parts to meet the Army's future requirements. Re-engineering would create a new environment to allow TRADOC to manage change rather than respond to it, by eliminating "middle layers" for which no major value was added. In General Franks' words, "It must be a long-term, corporate focus to evolve TRADOC into an organization continually able to meet and stay out in front of the rapidly changing requirements of a force-projection Army."

     General Franks chartered several Process Action Teams (PAT) to examine methods to better accomplish the integration function. Each team focused on different TRADOC mission areas, such as training and mission support. To develop its recommendations, PAT members solicited input from a variety of general officers and action officers during visits to TRADOC schools; Battle Laboratories; Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps units; and, Headquarters Department of the Army. By April 1994, three such PATs completed studies on TRADOC integration, Army education and training, and mission support.6

     — The integration PAT, termed the Commander's Integration Group, or CIG, was established on 19 January 1994 to serve as the command's "radar" for future combat developments and training. The CIG was given the mission "to develop a long-term capability for horizontal integration and to strengthen CINC/Joint harmonization across TRADOC domains" of doctrine, training, leadership development, organizational design, materiel requirements and soldier support. Under the aegis of Col. Rick Sills, CIG director, the group initially consisted of eight military and civilian members, growing to about 15 by mid-year.7

     — The PAT on education and training, composed of five officers and one civilian, recommended changes in officer accession policies, precommissioning military training and the Combined Arms and Services Staff School (CAS3). The team leader, Col. John Baer, solicited advice from both the "owners" and the "users" of the officer education process before presenting their recommendations.

     — The mission support PAT was chartered to analyze ways installation commanders could improve their operations in a period of declining resources. After talking to local civic leaders, businessmen and university administrators, the six-member PAT identified several areas that could be changed to give installation commanders greater freedom to make the best decisions for their posts.8

     As part of re-engineering, TRADOC headquarters assumed responsibility for the integration of all doctrine, training, leadership development, organizational design, materiel requirements, and soldier support (DTLOMS). Thus the headquarters would assume the integration function traditionally held by CAC and CASCOM. This necessitated several organizational and functional changes in both CAC and CASCOM, most of which were completed by the end of 1994.

CAC Reorganization

     The Combined Arms Command's reorganization was a direct result of the overall TRADOC reengineering initiative. The basic intent of the reorganization was to increase efficiency, eliminate layering and redundancy, while ensuring continued commitment to doctrine, training and leader development. The reorganization shifted some functions from Fort Leavenworth to other TRADOC installations for an estimated annual savings of $7 million. In addition, plans called for the transfer of about 67 military and 70 civilian positions to other TRADOC installations and the elimination of about 160 military positions.9

     On 15 July 1994, the Combined Arms Command and Fort Leavenworth (CAC) was redesignated as the Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, retaining the same acronym. The redesignation was made in support of the realignment of missions within TRADOC. Under the realignment, CAC's combat development, doctrinal concepts, and integration functions moved to Headquarters TRADOC. Tactical doctrine development and force design development functions remained at Fort Leavenworth, although the latter began reporting directly to the Deputy Chief of Staff for Combat Developments (DCSCD) at Fort Monroe. CAC's Organization Directorate also remained at Fort Leavenworth and was renamed the Directorate for Requirements Documentation (Prov), reporting to the U.S. Army Force Integration Support Agency. Training management also remained at Fort Leavenworth but its responsibilities were centralized under Headquarters TRADOC by redesignating CAC-Training (CAC-T) as TRADOC Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Training (ADCST) at Fort Leavenworth. The ADCST was given the mission "to serve as TRADOC's coordinating agent to support the enhancement and execution of combined arms collective training in the service, joint and combined arenas."10 The Training Doctrine Development Directorate was disbanded and reorganized as the Battle Command Training Directorate, and all functions concerning the Combat Training Centers directorate were transferred to Headquarters TRADOC at Fort Monroe. The National Simulation Center was also reassigned to the ADCST.11

New CAC Organization as of 15 July 1994New CAC Organization as of 15 July 1994

Additional changes resulting from the reorganization included:

     — Transfer to Fort Monroe of most functions performed by the Threats Directorate with the exception of those functions essential to directly support the Battle Command Training Program (BCTP) and the Command and General Staff College (CGSC).

     — Relocation to Fort Monroe of the Combat Training Center-Management Directorate.

     — Merging the Collective Training Instrumentation and Engagement Systems Directorate with Army Training Support Center under the control of the ADCST at Fort Leavenworth.

     — Transfer of the materiel proponency functions in the Command and Control Directorate to the U. S. Army Signal School at Fort Gordon.

     — Change of reporting for the Sergeants Major Academy to CGSC.

     — No change to the School of the Americas (SOA). SOA continued to report to the Commander, Fort Benning.

CASCOM Reorganization

     TRADOC's Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) underwent a major reorganization starting in 1993 that centralized the functions of combat developments, training developments, proponency and evaluation and standardization at Headquarters CASCOM. The school brigades of the CASCOM schools were left only with command and control and instructional elements, with the primary mission to provide branch-specific instruction. This initiative affected all CASCOM schools with two exceptions: the Aviation Logistics School and the Chaplain Center and School. The Aviation Logistics School was redesignated the Aviation Maintenance Training Activity and remained at Fort Eustis, Virginia. The functions of logistics unique to aviation were realigned to the Aviation School at Fort Rucker, Alabama. The Chaplain Center and School retained responsibility for all functions mentioned above because the Chaplain branch proponency resided in the Office of the Army Chief of Chaplains. The Chaplain School retained its Troop Program Headquarters Company as a single site school. In addition, the Chaplain School was designated to move to Fort Jackson, South Carolina, as part of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission plan for 1993 (BRAC 93). CASCOM's reorganization was driven primarily by the downsizing of the Army and severe budget reductions, both of which had begun to degrade the ability of CASCOM schools to accomplish their fundamental TRADOC missions. The reorganization was completed by 1 October 1994.12

Joint Warfighting Center Relocation

     The Joint Warfighting Center, which had been organized administratively in July 1993 at Norfolk Naval Air Station, was established at Fort Monroe with an effective date of 20 July 1994. Elements of the center, a Joint Chiefs of Staff J-7 agency, completed relocation from Norfolk and from Hurlburt Field, Florida, by late September, and the Joint Warfighting Center was formally installed in its duties at Fort Monroe on 4 October.13

Mobility Concepts Agency Relocation

     The Mobility Concepts Agency (MCA), responsible for mobility issues applicable to all military services, relocated to Fort Monroe, Virginia, in July 1994. The agency was previously located at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois, but was moved to Fort Monroe to take advantage of the proximity to military services doctrine centers: TRADOC, the Air Force Doctrine Center at Langley Air Force Base, the Naval Doctrine Command at Norfolk, the newly-established Joint Warfighting Center at Fort Monroe, the Armed Forces Staff College at Norfolk, and the United States Atlantic Command, also located at Norfolk. In addition, the Marine Corps Combat Development Command at Quantico, Virginia, was less than one hour's flight time from Fort Monroe. The 15-member agency (14 officers and 1 enlisted soldier), had representatives from all four services. The governing body for the agency was a Joint Action Steering Committee composed of one flag officer from each of the services. MCA developed recommendations on mobility concepts covering doctrine, procedures, training, equipment and organizations. The agency's operating budget was funded by all four services, with Fort Monroe providing local administrative support and funding.14

Base Realignment and Closure Actions

     During 1994, TRADOC continued to follow through on the recommendations of three commissions to close military installations around the country and to consolidate functions at remaining facilities. Chief among these Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) actions were: the consolidation of intelligence schooling at Fort Huachuca, Arizona; the closure of Fort Ord, California and transfer of base operations support to the Presidio of Monterey; the transfer of the Soldier Support Center (SSC) from Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, to Fort Jackson, South Carolina; and, relocation of the Chaplain Center and School from Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, to Fort Jackson, South Carolina.

Fort Huachuca and Fort Devens

     U.S. Army intelligence training was consolidated at the Intelligence Center and School at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, by summer 1994. This realignment, made in accordance with a decision of the 1988 Department of Defense Base Closure Report, required the transfer of the enlisted training conducted by the Intelligence School at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, to Fort Huachuca by the end of Fiscal Year 1994. Intelligence training began moving to Fort Huachuca in October 1992 and was completed by 19 August 1994 with the graduation of the last class from Fort Devens.15

Fort Ord and the Defense Language Institute

     The Base Realignment and Closure Commission for 1991 (BRAC 91) had recommended the closure of Fort Ord (a FORSCOM installation) and the transfer of base operations support for the Defense Language Institute Foreign language Center (DLI), a TRADOC school located at the FORSCOM-owned Presidio of Monterey. On 1 October 1994, the Presidio of Monterey was transferred from FORSCOM to TRADOC with the new designation of Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center and Presidio of Monterey. The support section at Fort Ord was slated for transfer to TRADOC in FY 1995.16

Fort Benjamin Harrison and the Soldier Support Center

     Another decision of BRAC 91 was to close Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, and relocate the Soldier Support Center (SSC) to Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Studies for the SSC move continued during 1994, with the completion of designs for the Unaccompanied Officer Quarters and Child Development Center at Fort Jackson slated for late 1994/early 1995. Completion of an Environmental Impact Statement at Fort Ben Harrison was expected by January 1995.17

Fort Jackson to Receive Chaplain School

     Under the guidance of BRAC 93, the U. S. Army Chaplain Center and School at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, was slated to move to Fort Jackson, South Carolina, by the end of FY 1997. Construction costs for new school facilities at Fort Jackson were estimated at $7.2 million. In an effort to save money on leased office space at Fort Monmouth, the Department of the Army requested a feasibility study for an early move of the Chaplain School on 9 June 1994. The study concluded that Fort Jackson could accommodate an early move and the decision was made to relocate the Chaplain School between 1 November 1995 and 15 January 1996.18